Akarakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. (Fam. Asteraceae); an annual, hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems.
Sanskrit : Akallaka
Assamese : –
Bengali : Akarakara
English : Pellitory
Gujrati : Akkalkaro, Akkalgaro
Hindi : Akalkara
Kannada : Akkallakara, Akallakara, Akalakarabha, Akkallaka Hommugulu
Kashmiri : –
Malayalam : Akikaruka, Akravu
Marathi : Akkalakara, Akkalakada
Oriya : Akarakara
Punjabi : Akarakarabh, Akarakara
Tamil : Akkaraka, Akkarakaram
Telugu : Akkalakarra
Urdu : Aqaraqarha
Roots tough, cylindrical, 7-15 cm in length, tapering slightly at both ends, with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves, external surface rough, brown, shrivelled, bark upto 3 mm thick, not easily separable, odour, slightly aromatic, taste, characteristically astringent and pungent, on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva.
Root – Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells, many of which developed as sclerenchyma; a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially, elongated, thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex; secondary phloem consisting of usual elements, cambium 2-5 layered, secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids and xylem parenchyma; vessels pitted, more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem, more and wider vessels found towards peripery, xylem fibres thick-walled, 1.37-28.8 µ in width, 53.2 – 231 µ in 1 length having narrow lumen, medullary rays numerous, running straight, bi to tri and multiseriate, uniseriate rays very rare, starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex; ray cells thick-walled, radially elongated, inulin present in cells of secondary cortex, secondary phloem and medullary rays; oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex, secondary phloe and medullary rays; calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex, secondary phloem, secondary xylem and medullary ray cells.
Powder - Ash coloured; shows vessels having scalariform thickening, rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma; also gives positive tests for inulin.
CONSTITUENTS – Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin).
PROPERTIES AND ACTION
Rasa : Katu
Guna : Ruksha, Tikshna
Virya : Ushna
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Vatahara, Pittahara, Kaphahara, sukrala, Vajikara, Svedakara, Dipana, Buddhivardhaka, Balakarka
IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Kumaryasava, Kasthuryadi (Vayu) Gutika, Nagavallabha Rasa
THERAPEUTIC USES – Pratisyaya, sotha, Ajirna, Kasa, svasa, Grdhrasi, Pakshaghata, Udararoga, Nashtartava, shularoga, Dantashula
DOSE – 0.5 -1 g. of the drug in powder form.