Viruses are the microscopic infectious agents that are capable of replicating inside the living cell of the organism as well as are capable of staying as a non-living particle outside the organism. They are responsible for various diseases like polio, AIDS.etc. Due to their capacity to multiply inside the living cell, they alter in the genetic configuration every time of their multiplication resulting to mutation. Due to this nature, the discovery of anti-viral drug is complicated. Here are some of the plants that have been proven to have anti-viral properties and have more potency to be used it the treatment of various viral disease.
Some Plants With Antiviral Properties
Haritaki/ Terminalia chebula: Research conducted on Terminalia chebula showed that it inhibited HIV I protease activity at a concentration of 25micregram per ml in the flurogenic assay.(Xu H.X et al., 1996). Similarly, aqueous and methanol extracts, chebulagic acid, punicalin, punicalagin and punicacortien of T. chebula showed that inhibition of HIV reverse transcriptase and inhibition of viral adsorption cells.(Nonaka et al.,1990; weaver et al., 1992; mekkawy et al., 1995).
Yastimadhu/ Glycyrrhiza glabra: Glycyrrhizin and its modified compound have proven anti viral activity against human immunodeficiency type HIV I and herpes simplex in mice. (Chemical pharmaceutical bulletin, 1991).
Phyllanthus niruri(Bhumi amalaki) Phyllanthus niruri has been found to exhibit marked inhibitory effect on hepatitis B virus evident by its exhaustive utility in cases of chronic jaundice. The inhibitory effect on HIV replication was monitored in terms of inhibition of virus induced cytopathogenecity in MT-4 cells. The alkaloidal extract of Phyllanthus niruri showed suppressing activity on strains of HIV-1 cells cultured on MT-4 cell lines. The alkaloidal extract of Phyllanthus niruri was thus found to exhibit sensitive inhibitory response on cytopathic effects induced by both the strains of human immunodeficiency virus on human MT-4 cells in the tested concentrations.( Naik AD, Juvekar AR. Effects of alkaloidal extract of Phyllanthus niruri on HIV replication. Indian J Med Sci 2003;57:387)
Azadirachta indica(Neem) The polysaccharides obtained from Azadirachta indica act against PV-1 by inhibiting the initial stage of viralreplication. Importantly, original polysaccharides showed better virucidal effect than their sulfated derivatives at all tested concentrations. This study provides a scientific basis for the past and present ethnomedical uses of this plant. (Faccin-Galhardi LC, Yamamoto KA.et.al. The in vitro antiviral property of Azadirachta indica polysaccharides for poliovirus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2012 Jun 26;142(1):86-90)
Andrographis paniculata: Laboratorial study of the andrographis paniculata showed that andrographolide, a diterpene lactone of the plant showed anti-HIV activity in vitro. The series of andrographolide derivative have been synthesizes aand evaluated for their anti-HIV activity.
Various other plants like Aegle marmelos, Argemone mexicana, Asparagus racemosus, Coleus forskohlii, and Rubia cordifolia demonstrated promising anti-HIV potential and researches are being conducted for their effective use.
Although various anti-viral drugs are used today for the management of HIV/AIDS, we can expect use of herbal antiviral preparations for the prevention and management of HIV/AIDS in near future.
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